Mercedes-AMG ONE: Formula 1 Technology for the Road
To mark the 55th anniversary of the Mercedes AMG performance and sports car brand, the production version of the Mercedes-AMG ONE is celebrating its world premiere. The two-seater super sports car brings the world's most modern and efficient Formula 1 hybrid drive technology from the race track to the road for the first time. The performance hybrid produces a total output of 782 kW (1063 hp) from one combustion engine and four electric motors, with a top speed capped at 352 km/h. The extremely complex development was conducted in close cooperation with the Formula 1 experts at Mercedes-AMG High-Performance Powertrains in Brixworth. The Mercedes-AMG ONE will also officially be seen in action for the first time in the UK, as part of the Festival of Speed at Goodwood (23 to 26 June 2022).
The unique hypercar inspires not only with its E PERFORMANCE Formula 1 hybrid drive, but also with further motorsport technology. This ranges from the carbon-fibre monocoque and carbon-fibre body to the load‑bearing engine/transmission unit, active aerodynamics and the push-rod suspension. With its complex technology, the two-seater Mercedes-AMG ONE offers even more than a Formula 1 racing car in some cases. It features the AMG Performance 4MATIC+ fully variable all-wheel drive with hybrid-driven rear axle and electrically driven front axle with torque vectoring. It can also drive purely electrically.
"With the Mercedes-AMG ONE, we have more than pushed the envelope. The immense technical challenges of making a modern Formula 1 powertrain suitable for everyday road use have undoubtedly pushed us to our limits. Over the duration of the development period, many may have thought that the project would be impossible to implement. Nevertheless, the teams in Affalterbach and the UK never gave up and believed in themselves. I have the highest respect for all those involved and am proud of this team achievement. To put such a hypercar on wheels is certainly unique. This applies to us as Mercedes-AMG not only from a technical point of view, but also in terms of the close exchange with our loyal customers. Together with us, they have gone through ups but also downs in the course of development. They were an integral part of Project One from the very beginning and can now look forward to the highly exclusive and unique Mercedes-AMG ONE, which has now also been able to clear the next hurdle and passed all ECE certification tests",
says Philipp Schiemer, Chairman of the Board of Management of Mercedes-AMG GmbH.
"The performance data of the Mercedes-AMG ONE are ultimately only a small excerpt of what technology is in this vehicle. Apart from a Formula 1 powertrain that generates 1063 hp from a relatively small, highly efficient internal combustion engine in combination with four electric motors, the monumental task was above all the exhaust gas aftertreatment. The Mercedes-AMG and Mercedes-AMG High Performance Powertrains teams have really done a great job here. This project was partly a curse and a blessing at the same time. But we have walked the stony path, and as a technician you naturally get carried away with all the details. From the materials used, the exceptional chassis components to the aerodynamic refinements - in terms of complexity, the Mercedes-AMG ONE is hard to beat. In a Formula 1 car, a team of engineers with laptops makes sure that the powertrain starts. With our hypercar, all it takes is the push of a button. This also illustrates the immense software know-how that has gone into this vehicle",
says Jochen Hermann, Technical Managing Director of Mercedes-AMG GmbH.
The E PERFORMANCE hybrid drive of the Mercedes-AMG ONE comes directly from Formula 1. It consists of a highly integrated and intelligently networked unit comprising one hybrid, turbocharged combustion engine with a total of four electric motors. One has been integrated into the turbocharger, another has been installed directly on the combustion engine with a link to the crankcase and the two remaining motors drive the front wheels.
The 1.6-litre V6 hybrid petrol engine with electrically assisted single-turbocharging corresponds to the current Formula 1 power unit. Spur gears drive the four overhead camshafts. To achieve high engine speeds, the mechanical valve springs have been replaced by pneumatic valve springs. The engine, mounted in mid-engine position in front of the rear axle, revs up to 11,000 rpm. However, for longer durability and the use of commercial super plus petrol, it deliberately stays below the F1 rev limit.
A high-tech turbocharger boosts the high-revving power unit. The exhaust gas turbine and compressor turbine are positioned at a distance from each other and connected by a shaft. This allows a lower installation position for the turbocharger. On the shaft is an approx. 90 kW electric motor. Electronically controlled, this drives the turbocharger shaft directly, accelerating the compressor wheel up to 100,000 rpm before the exhaust gas flow takes over. The Formula 1 designation for this unit is MGU-H (Motor Generator Unit Heat).
Lightning-quick response, faster than a naturally aspirated V8 engine
The major advantage: the response improves significantly immediately from idle speed (when the exhaust flow is still weak) across the entire rev range. The 1.6-litre V6 engine responds even more spontaneously to accelerator pedal commands, while the overall driving experience is highly dynamic. In addition, the electrification of the exhaust gas turbocharger enables higher torque at low engine speeds. This also increases agility and optimises acceleration. Even when the driver takes their foot off the accelerator or brakes, the technology can maintain boost pressure. This ensures a continuously direct response.
The electric exhaust gas turbocharger in the Mercedes-AMG ONE has yet another advantage: it uses part of the surplus energy from the exhaust gas flow to generate electrical power as a generator. This is either stored in the high-voltage lithium-ion battery or fed to the electric front axle or the combustion engine's electric motor (MGU-K = Motor Generator Unit Kinetic). The MGU-K has an output of 120 kW, is positioned directly on the combustion engine and is connected to the crankshaft via a spur gear system - another technology that ensures maximum efficiency and performance in Formula 1.
Turbocharging and direct injection with spray-guided combustion enable high power output and increase thermodynamic efficiency, thus reducing fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The high‑performance six-cylinder engine has two injection systems. First, direct injection delivers the fuel into the combustion chambers at up to 270 bar pressure. This is a multiple process at times, and is controlled by the engine management system as required. The additional port injection is needed to achieve the high specific power of the engine and at the same time comply with the exhaust emission limits.
This is the very complex and effective exhaust gas cleaning system with four preheated metal catalytic converters, two ceramic catalytic converters and two petrol particulate filters. The four heating elements with a combined output of 16 kW make it possible to comply with the EU6 exhaust emission limits under real driving conditions (RDE). The exhaust gas cleaning system is also backpressure-optimised to avoid power losses. This also applies to the large rear silencer made of lightweight titanium.
High Performance Battery with Formula 1 technology
The lithium-ion energy storage system is also a special Mercedes-AMG development. Its technology has already proven itself in the Mercedes-AMG Petronas F1 Team's Formula 1 hybrid racing cars under the toughest conditions and can also be found in the battery of the Mercedes-AMG GT 63 S E PERFORMANCE. The AMG High Performance Battery combines high power that can be called up frequently in succession with low weight to increase overall performance. Added to this are the fast energy draw and the high power density. This means that during a brisk drive in hilly terrain, for example, drivers can immediately call on the full power potential on uphill stretches, while recuperation is strong when driving downhill.
The arrangement of the battery cells and the cell cooling mirror the Mercedes-AMG Formula 1 racing car. For everyday use, however, their number is many times greater in the Mercedes-AMG ONE. The capacity of 8.4 kWh is sufficient for a purely electric range of 18.1 kilometres. Charging is via alternating current and the integrated 3.7 kW on-board charger. In addition, the battery can be supplied with fresh energy via recuperation or from the combustion engine. The lithium-ion, high-voltage battery and the DC/DC converter supporting and charging the 12 V onboard electrical system are accommodated in space-saving configuration in the vehicle floor behind the front axle.